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Precision Approaches to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD heterogeneity has hampered progress in developing pharmacotherapies that affect disease progression. This issue can be addressed by precision medicine approaches, which focus on understanding an individual's disease risk, and tailoring management based on pathobiology, environmental exposures, and psychosocial issues. There is an urgent need to identify COPD patients at high risk for poor outcomes and to understand at a mechanistic level why certain individuals are at high risk. Genetics, omics, and network analytic techniques have started to dissect COPD heterogeneity and identify patients with specific pathobiology. Drug repurposing approaches based on biomarkers of specific inflammatory processes (i.e., type 2 inflammation) are promising. As larger data sets, additional omics, and new analytical approaches become available, there will be enormous opportunities to identify high-risk individuals and treat COPD patients based on their specific pathophysiological derangements. These approaches show great promise for risk stratification, early intervention, drug repurposing, and developing novel therapeutic approaches for COPD.

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