PANoptosis: Mechanisms, biology, and role in disease.
Cell death can be executed through distinct subroutines. PANoptosis is a unique inflammatory cell death modality involving the interactions between pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis, which can be mediated by multifaceted PANoptosome complexes assembled via integrating components from other cell death modalities. There is growing interest in the process and function of PANoptosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that PANoptosis occurs under diverse stimuli, for example, viral or bacterial infection, cytokine storm, and cancer. Given the impact of PANoptosis across the disease spectrum, this review briefly describes the relationships between pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis, highlights the key molecules in PANoptosome formation and PANoptosis activation, and outlines the multifaceted roles of PANoptosis in diseases together with a potential for therapeutic targeting. We also discuss important concepts and pressing issues for future PANoptosis research. Improved understanding of PANoptosis and its mechanisms is crucial for identifying novel therapeutic targets and strategies.
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