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The impact of vascular endothelial glycocalyx on the pathogenesis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex disorder characterized by widespread activation of blood clotting mechanisms throughout the body. Understanding the role of vascular endothelial glycocalyx in the pathogenesis and treatment of DIC is crucial for advancing our knowledge in this field. The vascular endothelial glycocalyx is a gel-like layer that coats the inner surface of blood vessels. It plays a significant role in maintaining vascular integrity, regulating fluid balance, and preventing excessive clotting. In the pathogenesis of DIC, the disruption of the vascular endothelial glycocalyx is a key factor. Pathological conditions trigger the activation of enzymes, including heparanase, hyaluronase, and matrix metalloproteinase. This activation leads to glycocalyx degradation, subsequently exposing endothelial cells to procoagulant stimuli. Additionally, the ANGPTs/Tie-2 signaling pathway plays a role in the imbalance between the synthesis and degradation of VEG, exacerbating endothelial dysfunction and DIC. Understanding the mechanisms behind glycocalyx degradation and its impact on DIC can provide valuable insights for the development of targeted therapies. Preservation of the glycocalyx integrity may help prevent the initiation and propagation of DIC. Strategies such as administration of exogenous glycocalyx components, anticoagulant agents, or Tie-2 antibody agents have shown promising results in experimental models. In conclusion, the vascular endothelial glycocalyx plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis and treatment of DIC. Further research in this field is warranted to unravel the complex interactions between the glycocalyx and DIC, ultimately leading to the development of novel therapies.

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