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Long-term outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with recombinant interleukin-2 treatment and an associated increase in the number of HPyV-2-specific T-cells: a case report.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease caused by reactivation of the human polyomavirus 2 (HPyV-2). PML is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate and there is currently no standard curative therapy. We report short-term immunologic response and long-term clinical outcomes in a patient diagnosed with follicular lymphoma (FL) who developed PML. Diagnosis of PML was established conclusively based on findings from a brain biopsy. The patient was treated with recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) and showed rapid clinical improvement. HPyV-2-specific T-cells were tracked longitudinally and correlation with clinical status, viral load, and radiographic imaging was documented. After the progression of the patient's FL, which required an allogeneic bone marrow transplant, the patient prophylactically received human leukocyte antigen-matched donor-derived HPyV-2 T-cells to prevent the recurrence of the PML as part of a clinical trial. Twelve years after the initial diagnosis of PML, he did not develop a relapse of his PML, supporting data that therapies that increase HPyV-2-specific T-cells, including IL-2, may be effective in the management of PML.

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