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Association of Hip Dysplasia With Trochlear Dysplasia in Skeletally Mature Patients.

BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and trochlear dysplasia (TD) are distinct pathologies with several important features in common. In addition to shared risk factors, both forms of dysplasia cause abnormal joint kinematics and force transmission, predisposing patients to pain, injuries to cartilage and soft tissue stabilizers, and ultimately arthritis.

PURPOSE: To evaluate for an association between hip dysplasia and TD in skeletally mature patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

METHODS: A total of 48 patients with DDH who underwent periacetabular osteotomy were compared with 48 sex-matched patients who underwent hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) between July 2014 and February 2021. All patients were skeletally mature. The Tönnis angle and lateral center-edge angle were measured on preoperative pelvis radiographs. Femoral version, trochlear depth, lateral trochlear inclination (LTI), tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TTTG-d), and posterior lateral condylar angle (PLCA) were measured on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans of the symptomatic hip and ipsilateral knee. Continuous variables were compared between the patient groups using 2-sample t tests. Interobserver reliability was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient.

RESULTS: Patients with DDH demonstrated a reduced trochlear depth compared with patients with FAI (3.6 vs 4.6 mm; P < .001). There were no differences between groups in femoral anteversion, LTI, TTTG-d, or PLCA. Two (4.2%) patients with FAI and 17 (35.4%) patients with DDH had a trochlear depth <3 mm ( P < .001). One (2.1%) patient with FAI and 7 (14.6%) patients with DDH had an LTI <11° ( P = .027). There was no difference between groups in frequency of a convex proximal trochlea, patient-reported ipsilateral knee pain, or ipsilateral knee procedures.

CONCLUSION: Patients with DDH had reduced trochlear depth compared with patients with FAI, demonstrating a higher incidence of dysplastic trochlear features that may predispose patients to patellofemoral joint disease. Further research is needed to determine whether screening at-risk patients and treating TD will help to prevent symptomatic patellofemoral disease.

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