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Dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and functional foods use after myocardial infarction depend on the age, sex, BMI and professional activity - a pilot study.

OBJECTIVES: To assess dietary supplements, functional foods and nutraceuticals use among the patients after myocardial infarction (MI).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors prospectively enrolled 100 consecutive patients hospitalized due to MI and remaining under coordinated outpatient care after MI in the authors' cardiology department.

RESULTS: The authors showed that patients within median (interquartile range) 12.30 (10.18-14.57) months after MI use dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and functional foods in their everyday diet. Vitamins (53% patients), especially vitamin D (35%), were the most frequently used dietary supplements. In contrary to common usage of dietary supplements (59%), smaller proportion of patients use functional foods (21%) and nutraceuticals (5%), especially phytosterols. The authors found that the use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs and dietary supplements is associated with age (participants <60 years old vs. participants ≥60 years old: OTC drugs: N = 8 [20.0%] vs. N = 32 [53.3%], p < 0.001; herbals: N = 3 [7.5%] vs. N = 16 [26.7%], p = 0.019), sex of the patients following MI (females vs. males: vitamins: N = 17 [70.8%] vs. N = 36 [47,4%], p = 0.045; vitamin D: N = 13 [54.2%] vs. N = 22 [28.9%], p = 0.024; omega-3 fatty acids: N = 3 [12.5%] vs. N = 1 [1.3%], p = 0.042; herbals: N = 8 [33.3%] vs. N = 11[14.5%], p = 0.040), as well as the BMI of the participants (BMI < 24.9 vs. BMI ≥ 25.0: multivitamin/ multimineral dietary supplements: N = 3 [15.0%] vs. N = 31 [42.5%], p = 0.035; vitamin B6 : N = 1 [5.0%] vs. N = 21 [28.8%], p = 0.035). In the study group all participants with the age above retirement age have already withdrawn from professional activity and they more often used OTC drugs (N = 14 [25.9%] before retirement age vs. N = 26 [56.5%] above retirement age, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS: The patients following MI use supplements, functional foods and nutraceuticals. Their use depends on sex, age, BMI and professional activity. The authors believe that their potential beneficial effects require further evaluation in clinical longitudinal studies. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2023;36(6).

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