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The effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on glycemic control, adipokines, cytokines, malondialdehyde and liver function enzymes in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease: a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Nutrition Journal 2023 October 6
BACKGROUND: The present systematic review and meta-analysis sought to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on glycemic control, adipokines, cytokines, malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver function enzymes in patients at risk of cardiovascular disease.

METHODS: Relevant studies were obtained by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases (from inception to January 2023). Weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias were reported using standard methods.

RESULTS: A pooled analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) revealed that CLA supplementation led to a significant increment in fasting blood glucose (FBG) (WMD: 4.49 mg/dL; 95%CI: 2.39 to 6.59; P < 0.001), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (WMD: 2.54 IU/L; 95%CI: 0.06 to 5.01; P = 0.044). Moreover, CLA supplementation decreased leptin (WMD: -1.69 ng/ml; 95% CI: -1.80 to -1.58; P < 0.001), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) (WMD: -0.44 pg/ml; 95%CI: -0.86 to -0.02; P = 0.037). However, there was no effect on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) adiponectin compared to the control group.

CONCLUSION: Our findings showed the overall favorable effect of CLA supplementation on the adipokines and cytokines including serum IL-6, and leptin, while increasing FBG and AST. It should be noted that the mentioned metabolic effects of CLA consumption were small and may not reach clinical importance.

PROSPERO REGISTERATION COD: CRD42023426374.

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