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Association between triglyceride glucose index and severity of diabetic foot ulcers in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

BACKGROUND: Triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is a good surrogate biomarker to evaluate insulin resistance (IR). The study aimed to investigate whether the TyG index is related to the severity of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

METHODS: A total of 1059 T2DM patients were enrolled in this observational, retrospective, single-center study. TyG index was calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dl) × fasting glucose (mg/ dl)/2]. The severity of DFUs was classified into mild-to-moderate DFUs (Wagner grade score < 3) and severe DFUs (Wagner grade score ≥ 3) based on Wagner classification. Patients were stratified according to the tertiles of TyG index. Logistic regression models were implemented to explore the association between TyG index and the severity of DFUs. Subgroup analyses were used to verify the reliability of results.

RESULTS: Compared with the reference lowest TyG tertile (T1), the highest tertile (T3) was associated with 0.377-fold increased risk of prevalence of severe DFUs (odds ratio [OR] 1.377, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.017-1.865) (P = 0.039). After adjusting for potential confounders, the multivariable-adjusted OR and 95% CI were 1.506 (1.079-2.103) (P = 0.016) in patients with highest tertile. Moreover, subgroup analyses indicated that the association was stronger among men, patients with age ≥ 65 years, duration of diabetes more than 10 years, or without PAD.

CONCLUSIONS: Elevated TyG index is independently associated with severity of DFUs even after adjusting conventional confounders.

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