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Squamous Odontogenic Tumor in the Posterior Region of Maxilla.

Squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a rare benign but locally infiltrative tumor often misdiagnosed as other entities, such as ameloblastoma and squamous cell carcinoma, due to overlapping morphological findings. We document here the clinicopathological and imaging findings of an aggressive intraosseous SOT in the posterior left region of the maxilla in a 25-year-old male patient. On intraoral examination, the tumor extended from the region of the left lateral incisor to the upper left premolar and was covered by reddish mucosa, with discrete areas of ulceration. Imaging exams revealed an osteolytic lesion causing thinning, erosion, and buccal and lingual cortical plate perforation associated with an impacted canine. Microscopically, the tumor showed a proliferation of islands of well-differentiated squamous epithelium in a variably collagenized background. The peripheral cells of the islands were flat or slightly cuboidal and did not exhibit nuclei with peripheral palisade and reverse polarization. The diagnosis of SOT was rendered. The patient underwent surgical resection and has been under clinical follow-up for approximately 12 months with no signs of recurrence. A careful morphological evaluation is essential to avoid misdiagnosis and ensure a satisfactory treatment approach.

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