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Comparison of Plasma Levels of MicroRNA-155-5p, MicroRNA-210-3p, and MicroRNA-16-5p in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with Healthy Controls in a Case-control Study.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and destruction of the joints. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the expression of microRNA (miR)-155-5p, miR-210-3p, and miR-16-5p in the plasma of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in comparison with a healthy control group to attain an expression profile for earlier diagnosis and treatment. To carry out this study, 100 individuals were chosen as two equally sized groups of rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy controls. Five milliliters of blood were drawn from each individual, and plasma RNA was extracted using Trisol solution. Complementary DNAs were synthesized using the Moloney leukemia virus (MMLV) and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was implemented using the SYBR Green kit. The mean expression of miR-155-5p, miR-210-3p, and miR-16-5p were 2.46±2.79, 1.97±1.90, and 69.62±88.44 in the rheumatoid arthritis group, and 0.34±0.33, 9.82±9.34, and 7.94±7.09 in the healthy group, respectively. Additionally, significant differences were revealed in the relative  expression of the selected microRNAs in 4 subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis patients with different disease activities based on the disease activity score 28 (DAS28). ROC curve analysis showed that miR-155-5p (area under the curve, AUC=0.90, sensitivity=80%, specificity=81%), miR-210-3p (AUC=0.75, sensitivity=66%, specificity=71%), and miR-16-5p (AUC=0.96, sensitivity=89%, specificity=82%) could be potential biomarkers for rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis. Increased expressions of miR-16-5p and miR-155-5p and decreased expression of miR-210-3p in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared with healthy individuals demonstrate the effectiveness of these microRNAs in disease incidence and progression. Thus, the expression levels of these microRNAs can be used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

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