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RET/PTC rearrangement in papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in malignant struma ovarii with abdominal wall metastasis and cervical thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature.

Thyroid Research 2023 September 28
BACKGROUND: Struma ovarii refers to rare mature cystic teratomas containing at least 50% of thyroid tissue, and malignant transformation is known to be even rarer. The synchronous development of malignant struma ovarii and cervical thyroid carcinoma are also scarce and poorly understood due to limited data about molecular features. Here, we present the first report of RET/PTC 1 rearrangement in synchronous metastatic malignant struma ovarii to the abdominal wall and cervical thyroid cancer.

CASE PRESENTATION: We described a 47-year-old multigravida woman with bilateral adnexal and lower abdominal wall masses detected during the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding. The patient underwent a hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and surgical removal of abdominal wall mass. Then, the pathological evaluation revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) within struma ovarii and metastatic PTC in the abdominal wall fibro adipose tissue. Further, cervical thyroid gland physical examination and ultrasound illustrated a nodule within the left lobe. Subsequently, a total thyroidectomy was performed, and a histological examination revealed PTC. Furthermore, all affected tissue, i.e., struma ovarii, abdominal wall metastasis, and cervical thyroid gland tested for BRAF and RAS mutations and RET/PTC 1 rearrangement. RET/PTC 1 rearrangement was identified among all three different sites. Finally, after six years of follow-up, the patient had no evidence of recurrence or distant metastasis.

CONCLUSIONS: In light of these findings, malignant struma ovarii might yield a clue to cervical thyroid carcinoma, and the molecular analysis could provide valuable information for understanding the underlying mechanism, tumor clinicopathological behaviors, and prognosis.

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