Cathepsin C (CatC, syn. Dipeptidyl peptidase I) is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase expressed in several tissues including inflammatory cells. This enzyme is important for maintaining multiple cellular functions and for processing immune cell-derived proteases. While mutations in the CatC gene were reported in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder featuring hyperkeratosis and periodontitis, evidence from clinical and preclinical studies points toward pro-inflammatory effects of CatC in various disease processes that are mainly mediated by the activation of neutrophil serine proteinases. Moreover, tumor-promoting effects were ascribed to CatC. The aim of this review is to highlight current knowledge of the CatC as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory disorders.
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