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The intratumor mycobiome promotes lung cancer progression via myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

Cancer Cell 2023 November 14
Although polymorphic microbiomes have emerged as hallmarks of cancer, far less is known about the role of the intratumor mycobiome as living microorganisms in cancer progression. Here, using fungi-enriched DNA extraction and deep shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we have identified enriched tumor-resident Aspergillus sydowii in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). By three different syngeneic lung cancer mice models, we find that A. sydowii promotes lung tumor progression via IL-1β-mediated expansion and activation of MDSCs, resulting in suppressed activity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte cells and accumulation of PD-1+ CD8+ T cells. This is mediated by IL-1β secretion via β-glucan/Dectin-1/CARD9 pathway. Analysis of human samples confirms that enriched A. sydowii is associated with immunosuppression and poor patient outcome. Our findings suggest that intratumor mycobiome, albeit at low biomass, promotes lung cancer progression and could be targeted at the strain level to improve patients with LUAD outcome.

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