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Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia and hyperleukocytosis with WBC count greater than 50 × 10 9 /L.

BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and hyperleukocytosis have an unfavorable prognosis, but the impact of hyperleukocytosis on the prognosis of pediatric AML remains uncertain. We investigated the clinical characteristics and prognosis of pediatric AML with hyperleukocytosis, defined as WBC ≥ 50 × 109 /L.

METHODS: A total of 132 patients with newly diagnosed childhood AML with hyperleukocytosis were consecutively enrolled at our center from September 2009 to August 2021 to investigate prognostic factors and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS: Hyperleukocytosis occurred in 27.4% of AML patients. Pediatric patients with hyperleukocytosis had similar CR and OS rates to those without hyperleukocytosis, but had a lower EFS rate. In our study, rates of CR1, mortality, relapsed/refractory disease, and HSCT were comparable between AML patients with WBC counts of 50-100 × 109 /L and ≥ 100 × 109 /L. AML patients with a WBC count of 50-100 × 109 /L had a similar 5-year OS rate to patients with a WBC count ≥ 100 × 109 /L (74.6% vs. 75.4%, P = 0.921). Among all patients with hyperleukocytosis, the FAB M5 subtype was associated with significantly inferior survival, and the prognosis of CBF-AML was good.

CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric AML patients with hyperleukocytosis have the similar prognosis regardless of whether their WBC count is 50-100 × 109 /L or ≥ 100 × 109 /L.

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