Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Maintaining Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitor Treatment with Patiromer in Hyperkalaemic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Comparison of a Propensity-Matched Real-World Population with AMETHYST-DN.

INTRODUCTION: Guideline-directed renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor (RAASi) therapy is rarely achieved in clinical settings, often due to hyperkalaemia. We assessed the potassium binder, patiromer, on continuation of RAASi therapy in hyperkalaemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the AMETHYST-DN trial, propensity score-matched to a real-world cohort not receiving patiromer (Salford Kidney Study).

METHODS: The phase 2, open-label AMETHYST-DN trial (NCT01371747) randomized 304 adults with CKD on RAASi, T2DM, hyperkalaemia (serum potassium [sK+] >5.0 mEq/L), and hypertension to receive patiromer, 8.4-33.6 g/day for 12 months. Patients underwent propensity score matching for systolic blood pressure (BP), heart failure status, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), with 321 patients with CKD, T2DM, hyperkalaemia, and on RAASi from a prospective CKD cohort (Salford Kidney Study). Changes in RAASi utilization, sK+, BP, proteinuria, and eGFR during 12-month follow-up were assessed by Mann-Whitney U or χ2 tests.

RESULTS: Matching produced 135:135 patients with no significant differences in age, sex, systolic BP, sK+, eGFR, or heart failure status, although differences in diastolic BP remained (p < 0.001). After 12 months, 100% of AMETHYST-DN patients receiving patiromer remained on RAASi therapy, whereas 38.5% of the Salford Kidney Cohort discontinued RAASi (p < 0.001); hyperkalaemia contributed in 16% of patients (42% of RAASi discontinuations). Significantly greater reductions in sK+ and BP, but not proteinuria or eGFR, were observed in AMETHYST-DN, compared with Salford Kidney Study patients (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the benefit of patiromer for sK+ management to enable RAASi use while revealing beneficial effects on BP.

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