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Methods for Inclusive Underwriting of Breast Cancer Risk with Machine Learning and Innovative Algorithms.

INTRODUCTION: -Due to early detection and improved therapies, the prevalence of long-term breast cancer survivors is increasing. This has increased the need for more inclusive underwriting in individuals with a history of breast cancer. Herein, we developed a method using algorithm aiming facilitating the underwriting of multiple parameters in breast cancer survivors.

METHODS: -Variables and data were extracted from the SEER database and analyzed using 4 different machine learning based algorithms (Logistic Regression, GA2M, Random Forest, and XGBoost) that were compared with Kaplan Meier survival estimates. The performances of these algorithms have been compared with multiple metrics (Log Loss, AUC, and SMR). In situ (non-invasive) and metastatic breast cancer were excluded from this analysis.

RESULTS: -Parameters included the pathological subtype, pTNM staging (T: tumor size, N; number of nodes; M presence or absence of metastases), Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading, the expression of estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors were selected to predict the individual outcome at any time point from diagnosis. While all models had identical performance in terms of statistical metrics (AUC, Log Loss, and SMR), the logistic regression was the one and only model that respects all business constraints and was intelligible for medical and underwriting users.

CONCLUSION: -This study provides insight to develop algorithms to set underwriter-friendly calculators for more accurate risk estimations that can be used to rationalize insurance pricing for breast cancer survivors. This study supports the development of a more inclusive underwriting based on models that can encompass the heterogeneity of several malignancies such as breast cancer.

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