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Prediction of p53 mutation status in rectal cancer patients based on magnetic resonance imaging-based nomogram: a study of machine learning.

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to construct and validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomics nomogram to predict tumor protein p53 gene status in rectal cancer patients using machine learning.

METHODS: Clinical and imaging data from 300 rectal cancer patients who underwent radical resections were included in this study, and a total of 166 patients with p53 mutations according to pathology reports were included in these patients. These patients were allocated to the training (n = 210) or validation (n = 90) cohorts (7:3 ratio) according to the examination time. Using the training data set, the radiomic features of primary tumor lesions from T2-weighted images (T2WI) of each patient were analyzed by dimensionality reduction. Multivariate logistic regression was used to screen predictive features, which were combined with a radiomics model to construct a nomogram to predict p53 gene status. The accuracy and reliability of the nomograms were assessed in both training and validation data sets using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

RESULTS: Using the radiomics model with the training and validation cohorts, the diagnostic efficacies were 0.828 and 0.795, the sensitivities were 0.825 and 0.891, and the specificities were 0.722 and 0.659, respectively. Using the nomogram with the training and validation data sets, the diagnostic efficacies were 0.86 and 0.847, the sensitivities were 0.758 and 0.869, and the specificities were 0.833 and 0.75, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The radiomics nomogram based on machine learning was able to predict p53 gene status and facilitate preoperative molecular-based pathological diagnoses.

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