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Hypomethylating agents plus modified priming regimens compared with venetoclax-based regimens based on molecular characteristics for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a multi-center cohort study.

Annals of Hematology 2023 September 19
Venetoclax (VEN)-based regimens are the standard of care for elderly or unfit patients with newly diagnosed (ND) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Some single-arm studies have implied that hypomethylating agents (HMAs) plus priming regimens may potentially provide an alternative therapeutic approach, owing to encouraging efficacy seen. However, no comparative data exists yet regarding these two treatment approaches. In this retrospective multi-center cohort study, we enrolled 294 ND AML patients, allocating 167 to the HMA + priming group and 127 to the VEN-based group. Treatment response and overall survival (OS) were compared between groups. Molecular subgroup analyses were also conducted. With a median of two cycles for HMA + priming group, the overall response (ORR) was 65.3%, including 55.1% complete remission (CR), 9.6% CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) and 0.6% morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS). With a median of two cycles for VEN-based group, the ORR was 70.9%, including 46.5% CR, 18.9% CRi, and 5.5% MLFS. Response differences (ORR or CR/CRi) between groups were not significant (p > 0.05). With a median follow-up of 10.1 months, median OSs were similar between groups (20.9 vs 16.3 months, p = 0.41). However, VEN regimens demonstrated superior CR/CRi for patients with mutations in FLT3, IDH1/2, and NPM1 compared to HMA + priming (80.0% vs 35.0%, p = 0.01; 90.9% vs 65.5%, p = 0.02; 90.9% and 65.5%, p = 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, HMAs plus modified priming regimens might be a potential alternative therapeutic approach for patients with ND AML, but VEN-based regimens presented predominance in specific molecular subgroups. Molecular characteristics contribute to guiding choice of treatment.

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