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Prevalence and associated factors of hyperuricemia among Chinese patients with diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

BACKGROUND: As a part of metabolic syndrome, hyperuricemia has a higher incidence in patients with diabetes than in the general population owing to various underlying factors.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperuricemia among patients with diabetes and identify associated factors.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.

METHODS: Herein, we included patients with diabetes managed at nine healthcare centers in Chenghua District, Chengdu, from February 2021 to November 2021. Clinical data, lifestyle habits, and laboratory data were collected to determine the prevalence and factors associated with hyperuricemia.

RESULTS: In total, we included 1577 patients with diabetes (males, 50.35%; females, 49.65%). The median serum uric acid level was 337.9 μmol/L, and the prevalence of hyperuricemia in patients with diabetes was 21.24%. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in male patients was significantly higher than in females (29.35% in males versus 13.03% in females, p  < 0.001). Male patients with obesity ( p  = 0.006) or triglyceride (TG) ⩾ 1.7 mmol/L ( p  < 0.001) had a high risk of developing hyperuricemia, and hyperuricemia was negatively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ⩾ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ( p  < 0.001), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ⩾ 7% ( p  < 0.001), fenofibrate ( p  = 0.010), and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors ( p  = 0.035). Considering females, overweight ( p  = 0.004), alanine transaminase (ALT) > 40 U/L ( p  < 0.001), and TG ⩾ 1.7 mmol/L ( p  = 0.015) showed a significant positive correlation with hyperuricemia, while eGFR ⩾ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ( p  < 0.001) was negatively associated with the risk of hyperuricemia.

CONCLUSION: Hyperuricemia is highly prevalent in patients with diabetes, especially in males. In addition to traditionally associated factors, fenofibrate and SGLT-2 inhibitors were also associated with the risk of hyperuricemia.

REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (, and the registration number was ChiCTR 2100042742.

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