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Effects of hazelnut protein isolate-induced food allergy on the gut microenvironment in a BALB/c mouse model.

Food & Function 2023 September 19
Hazelnuts are reported as among the nuts that cause severe allergic reactions. However, few systematic studies exist on the changes in the gut microenvironment following hazelnut allergy. This study focused on the effects of hazelnut allergy on the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon microenvironment in vivo . We established a hazelnut protein isolate (HPI)-allergic mouse model, which was distinguished by the visible allergy symptoms, dropped temperatures and enhanced allergic inflammatory factor levels in serum, such as HPI-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE), sIgG2a, interleukin-4, histamine, mouse mast cell protease-1, TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and lipopolysaccharide. For HPI sensitized mice, aggravated mast cell degranulation, severe morphologic damage and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon, while goblet cell numbers were reduced in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Secretory IgA of the jejunum and tight junctions of the duodenum and jejunum were decreased significantly after HPI sensitization. There was no remarkable difference in the pH values of small intestinal contents, but the pH values of colonic contents were elevated, which was due to the decreased short-chain fatty acids (mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate) in the colon. The antioxidant capacity of both large and small intestinal contents declined after HPI sensitization, as evidenced by the increased malondialdehyde and decreased superoxide dismutase activity. HPI sensitization induced gut microbiota dysbiosis with decreased α diversity and altered β diversity in colonic contents. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the increased characteristic genera, namely Bacteroides , Lactobacillus , Alloprevotella , Erysipelatoclostridium , Parabacteroides , and Helicobacter , played potentially synergistic roles in promoting allergy and gut microenvironment dysregulation.

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