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Inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis: Diagnostic Challenges, Pathogenic Mechanisms and their role in depression and management.

Depression being a common comorbidity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is found to be responsible for the reduction in the lifespan of the sufferer along with the compromised quality of life. The study quoted below highlights the pathogenic pathways, the frequency of RA along with its impact on patients, thus, raising awareness about the concerned topic. It is found that the chances and frequency of developing depression are 2-3 times higher in patients with RA in comparison to the general population. For such studies, self-reported questionnaires along with proper screening of inclusion and exclusion criteria have been employed which helped in a better comparative study of the topic. As per a report from a meta-analysis, 16.8% of patients with RA have been observed to develop severe depression. According to recent research in the related field, the hypothesis of the role of immune-mediated processes and their role in brain networks and inflammation has been found to be engaged in the progression and pathophysiology of depression in patients with RA. Autoimmune mechanisms and cytokines are found to play an essential role in coordination for initiating and sustaining the disorder. Involvement of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF α has been studied and analysed widely. A number of studies have shown a connection between depression and RA-related physical impairment, fatigue, and increased pain. Higher mortality, reduced treatment compliance, and more comorbidities effects increased suicide risk. It is also found that depression along with RA leads to hospitalizations, which in turn increase the cost of care for the patient. Hence, it could be stated that the study of depression in RA can be an important marker for the progression of RA and its prognosis. The latest treatment strategies for RA include management of symptoms and early disorder treatment The current review aims to investigate and bring the links between RA and its symptoms into the limelight, including the psycho-social, physiological, and neurological aspects along with their molecular mechanism, for a better discernment of the topic for the readers.

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