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Neonatal Ampicillin/Gentamicin Exposure and the Risk of Childhood Obesity in South Bronx Pediatric Population.

OBJECTIVE:  This study aimed to assess the association between neonatal antibiotic exposure and the risk of childhood obesity.

STUDY DESIGN:  This retrospective cohort study enrolled neonates born between 2011 and 2015 and followed up until 5 years. The incidence of obesity at 5 years old, and other characteristics were compared between the antibiotic-exposed and unexposed groups. Chi-square test was conducted on categorical variables and Student's t -test for normally distributed continuous variable. Significant variables ( p  < 0.05) in bivariate analysis were modelled in a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis to ascertain independent predictors of obesity at 5 years.

RESULTS:  Of the 1,447 subjects, 749 (51.8%) received ampicillin and gentamicin, and 333 (23%) were obese. Neonates exposed to antibiotics were more likely to be obese compared with those unexposed (26 vs. 20%, p  = 0.01). In the adjusted model, this association persisted (adjusted odds ratio: 1.37, p  = 0.02).

CONCLUSION:  Neonatal antibiotic exposure is associated with early childhood obesity and may play a significant role in the weight trajectories of these children. Hence, antibiotic stewardship in this period cannot be overemphasized.

KEY POINTS: · Findings from our study showed that neonatal antibiotic exposure is associated with early childhood obesity.. · The prevalence of childhood obesity at 5 years is high (23%).. · Further exploration of the role of antibiotics on the gut microbiome and its effect on weight trajectories is needed..

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Urinary Tract Infections: Core Curriculum 2024.American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2023 October 31

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