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Advancements and Challenges in Developing Malaria Vaccines: Targeting Multiple Stages of the Parasite Life Cycle.

ACS Infectious Diseases 2023 September 15
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium species, remains a major global health concern, causing millions of deaths annually. While the introduction of the RTS,S vaccine has shown promise, there is a pressing need for more effective vaccines due to the emergence of drug-resistant parasites and insecticide-resistant vectors. However, the complex life cycle and genetic diversity of the parasite, technical obstacles, limited funding, and the impact of the 2019 pandemic have hindered progress in malaria vaccine development. This review focuses on advancements in malaria vaccine development, particularly the ongoing clinical trials targeting antigens from different stages of the Plasmodium life cycle. Additionally, we discuss the rationale, strategies, and challenges associated with vaccine design, aiming to enhance the immune response and protective efficacy of vaccine candidates. A cost-effective and multistage vaccine could hold the key to controlling and eradicating malaria.

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