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Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in pediatric patients with sickle cell anemia.

Blood Pressure Monitoring 2023 September 15
INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hemoglobinopathy presenting severe endothelial damage associated with increased prevalence of hypertension (HTN). Few studies have used ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in pediatric patients with SCA. The aim of this study was to characterize the ABPM profile in children with SCA.

METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on all subjects <18 years of age with SCA who presented at a medical reference center in the city of Cartagena, Colombia. Anthropometric, clinical laboratory, treatment, and ABPM parameters, including ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) were registered.

RESULTS: The study included 79 patients, of these, 23 (29%) children had normal BP, 49 (62%) had abnormal BP and 7 (9%) had HTN. Mean age was 10.5 ± 3.6 years and 44 (56%) cases were male. Forty-eight (60%) patients had pre-HTN. Masked HTN was present in 6 (8%) patients. One (1%) had ambulatory HTN, and another one (1%) had white coat HTN. The HTA group exhibited significantly higher systolic BP and diastolic BP compared to the other groups in 24-hour BP readings, daytime BP, and night-time BP ABPM parameters (P < 0.05), except for daytime DBP (P = 0.08). Mean AASI was 0.4 ± 0.2. The HTN group had the highest AASI value compared to the other groups (P = 0.006).

CONCLUSION: Significant alterations in ABPM parameters are frequently observed in pediatric patients with SCA. The incorporation of ABPM, along with the assessment of AASI, is recommended for a comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular and renal risk in SCA patients.

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