JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis in Clinical Practice.

Allergic rhinitis is a prevalent condition among children, with its occurrence reaching up to 40% of the general population in some geographical areas. A type 2 immunity sustains allergic rhinitis. Consequently, type 2 inflammation leads to eosinophilic infiltrate of the nasal mucosa. Allergic inflammation causes the symptom occurrence. Typical nasal symptoms include nasal itching, sneezing, watery rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion. Nasal congestion depends on vasodilation and increased mucus production. These conditions result in nasal obstruction. Nasal obstruction is closely associated with type 2 inflammation. Allergic rhinitis usually occurs in association with other allergic conditions, in particular allergic conjunctivitis and asthma. The effective management of allergic rhinitis involves avoiding triggering allergens and employing pharmacological treatments as per ARIA guidelines. These treatments may include intranasal/oral antihistamines or/and nasal corticosteroids. In particular, antihistamines are particularly indicated for symptoms consequent to mediators' release, mainly concerning histamine. These histamine-dependent symptoms include itching, sneezing, and rhinorrhea. Nasal obstruction, being associated with inflammation, is responsive to corticosteroids, administered mostly intranasally. The fixed combination of a topical antihistamine plus a topical corticosteroid is very effective, but is indicated for adolescents only. However, nasal lavage is safe, cheap, and adequate, thus its use is prevalent. Namely, nasal lavage allows to remove secretions, allergens, mediators. In addition, hypertonic solutions exert a decongestant activity. On the other hand, the allergen-specific immunotherapy is still the only causal treatment. Nutraceuticals have also been used to relieve symptoms. The objective of this review is to explore and compare the traditional and new therapeutic approaches for pollen-induced allergic rhinitis in children.

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