Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Genetics of Sex Differences in Immunity.

Women have a stronger immune response and a higher frequency of most autoimmune diseases than men. While much of the difference between men and women is due to the effect of gonadal hormones, genetic differences play a major role in the difference between the immune response and disease frequencies in women and men. Here, we focus on the immune differences between the sexes that are not downstream of the gonadal hormones. These differences include the gene content of the sex chromosomes, the inactivation of chromosome X in women, the consequences of non-random X inactivation and escape from inactivation, and the states that are uniquely met by the immune system of women-pregnancy, birth, and breast feeding. While these female-specific states are temporary and involve gonadal hormonal changes, they may leave a long-lasting footprint on the health of women, for example, by fetal cells that remain in the mother's body for decades. We also briefly discuss the immune phenotype of congenital sex chromosomal aberrations and experimental models that enable hormonal and the non-hormonal effects of the sex chromosomes to be disentangled. The increasing human life expectancy lengthens the period during which gonadal hormones levels are reduced in both sexes. A better understanding of the non-hormonal effects of sex chromosomes thus becomes more important for improving the life quality during that period.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app