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Sex Differences in Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Depression in Individuals Infected with Omicron in China.

PURPOSE: Sex differences in depression have been well recognized. However, sex differences in depression among Omicron-infected individuals have received little systematic study. This study compared sex differences in depression in infected individuals during the 2022 Omicron pandemic in China.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: 506 individuals infected with Omicron (males/females = 268/238) were recruited from Tianjin and Shanghai in China. Self-developed Scale of Demographics were used to collect demographic and clinical data, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), De Jong Gierveld Scale (DJGLS), and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) were used to measure respondents' depression, anxiety, resilience, loneliness and worry, respectively.

RESULTS: The prevalence rate of depression in male patients was significantly higher than in female patients (42.2% versus 31.9%; χ 2 = 5.64, p = 0.018). Regression analysis showed that in female patients, depression was associated with anxiety [OR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.16-1.36), p < 0.001], and resilience [OR = 0.98, 95% CI (0.96-1.00), p < 0.05], while in male patients, depression was associated with anxiety [OR = 1.24, 95% CI (1.15-1.33), p < 0.001].

CONCLUSION: This on-site study demonstrates that depression is more frequent in male than female Omicron-infected patients and suggests that sex differences should be considered in prevention and treatment strategies for depression during the Omicron pandemic.

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