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Impact of thyroid hormone treatment on maternal pregnancy outcomes in women with subclinical hypothyroidism without TPOAb: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

Thyroid Research 2023 September 12
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the impact of thyroid hormone treatment (LT4) on maternal pregnancy outcomes in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) without thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) positivity is scarce.

METHODS: Single centre, cross-sectional study in 1460 women screened for TSH, free T4 and TPOAb at median 13 (11-17) weeks of gestation during the period 2013-2014. Exclusion criteria were twin- and assisted reproduction pregnancies, TPO positivity, overt thyroid dysfunction, and treatment with LT4 before screening. The impact of LT4 on maternal pregnancy outcomes was investigated in a group of 53 women with SCH (TSH > 3.74 mIU/L) in which LT4 was initiated at median 13 (10-22) weeks (treated group). The control group included 18 women with SCH (TSH > 3.74 mIU/L). The prevalence of pregnancy complications in these two groups was compared with that in a euthyroid reference (REF) group of 1389 women (TSH ≤ 3.74 mIU/L).

RESULTS: The prevalence of pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes (GDM) was higher in the control group vs the REF group (16.7% vs 5.0% and 27.8% vs 18.9%; p = 0.017 and p = 0.016, respectively), but comparable in the treated group vs the REF group (7.6% vs 5.0% and 22.6% vs 18.9%; p = 0.918 and 0.676, respectively). The prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia was lower in the treated vs the REF group (17.0% vs 32.5%; p = 0.017).

CONCLUSION: Pregnant women with untreated SCH and without TPOAb positivity had a higher prevalence of pre-eclampsia and GDM compared with euthyroid women, while this was not the case in women with treated SCH, even when it was initiated after the first trimester.

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