JOURNAL ARTICLE
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The role and participation of immune cells in the endometrial tumor microenvironment.

The tumor microenvironment is surrounded by blood vessels and consists of malignant, nonmalignant, and immune cells, as well as signalling molecules, which primarily affect the therapeutic response and curative effects of drugs in clinical studies. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells participate in tumor progression, impact anticancer therapy and eventually lead to the development of immune tolerance. Immunotherapy is evolving as a promising therapeutic intervention to stimulate and activate the immune system to suppress cancer cell growth. Endometrial cancer (EC) is an immunogenic disease, and in recent years, immunotherapy has shown benefit in the treatment of recurrent and advanced EC. This review discusses the key molecular pathways associated with the intra-tumoral immune response and involvement of circulatory signalling molecules. Specific immunologic signatures in EC which offer targets for immunomodulating agents, are also discussed. We have summarized the available literature in support of using immunotherapy in EC. Lastly, we have also discussed ongoing clinical trials that may offer additional promising immunotherapy options in the future. The manuscript also explored innovative approaches for screening and identifying effective drugs, and to reduce the financial burdens for the development of personalized treatments strategies. Collectively, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the role of immune cells and the tumor microenvironment in the development, progression and treatment of EC.

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