Stress/cell death pathways, neuroinflammation, and neuropathic pain.
Neuropathic pain is a common and debilitating modality of chronic pain induced by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system. Albeit the elucidation of numerous pathophysiological mechanisms and the development of potential treatment compounds, safe and reliable therapies of neuropathic pain remain poor. Multiple stress/cell death pathways have been shown to be implicated in neuroinflammation during neuropathic pain. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of stress/cell death pathways and present an overview of the roles and molecular mechanisms of stress/cell death pathways in neuroinflammation during neuropathic pain, covering intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis, autophagy, mitophagy, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, and phagoptosis. Small molecule compounds that modulate stress/cell death pathways in alleviating neuropathic pain are discussed mainly based on preclinical neuropathic pain models. These findings will contribute to in-depth understanding of the pathological processes during neuropathic pain as well as bridge the gap between basic and translational research to uncover new neuroprotective interventions.
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