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Association between Intraoperative Early Warning Score and Mortality and In-Hospital Stay in Lower Gastrointestinal Spontaneous Perforation.

BACKGROUND: Early warning scores (EWSs) can be easily calculated from physiological indices; however, the extent to which intraoperative EWSs and the corresponding changes are associated with patient prognosis is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether EWS and the corresponding time-related changes are associated with patient outcomes during the anesthetic management of lower gastrointestinal perforation.

METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary emergency care center. Adult patients who underwent surgery for spontaneous lower gastrointestinal perforations between September 1, 2012, and December 31, 2019, were included. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) were calculated based on the intraoperative physiological indices, and the associations with in-hospital death and length of hospital stay were investigated.

RESULTS: A total of 101 patients were analyzed. The median age was 70 years, and there were 11 cases of in-hospital death (mortality rate: 10.9%). There was a significant association between the intraoperative maximum NEWS and in-hospital death (odds ratio (OR): 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-2.32, p =0.013) and change from initial to maximum NEWS (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.07-2.40, p =0.023) in the crude analysis. However, when adjustments were made for confounding factors, no statistically significant associations were found. Other intraoperative EWS values and changes were not significantly associated with the investigated outcomes. The preoperative sepsis-related organ failure assessment score and the intraoperative base excess value were significantly associated with in-hospital death.

CONCLUSIONS: No clear association was observed between EWSs and corresponding changes and in-hospital death in cases of lower gastrointestinal perforation. The preoperative sepsis-related organ failure assessment score and intraoperative base excess value were significantly associated with in-hospital death.

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