Treatment overview of axial spondyloarthritis in 2023.
The treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is characterized by non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options. It may depend on the type and extent of musculoskeletal and extramusculoskeletal manifestations. Recent data on non-pharmacological treatment options, such as physical activity, physiotherapy, and modification of lifestyle factors, are summarized in this review. Moreover, we have provided an overview on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the ever-expanding number of biological and targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs and tsDMARDs, respectively). In addition to data on efficacy and safety, the review also encompasses data on switching/cycling, tapering, and treatment selection for specific patient subgroups to optimize treatment outcomes.
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