Imaging of Vesicoureteral Reflux: AJR Expert Panel Narrative Review.
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common congenital anomaly of the urinary tract that can present with collecting system dilation or as a febrile infection. VUR can lead to permanent renal sequela requiring surgery but can also spontaneously resolve without complication. Therefore, it is important to recognize those patient populations who warrant imaging for screening, confirmation, or ongoing surveillance for VUR, while avoiding overdiagnosis. In the appropriate patient populations, an accurate diagnosis of VUR allows early treatment and prevention of pyelonephritis and scarring. Various imaging modalities are available to diagnose and grade VUR, including voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), radionucleotide cystography (RNC), and contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ceVUS). The objective of this article is to summarize the current understanding of VUR diagnosis and management and to discuss these imaging modalities' strengths and pitfalls. Considerations include indications for VUR imaging, patient preparation, conduct of the examination, issues related to radiologic reporting, and cost-effectiveness. An emphasis is placed on ceVUS, which is the most recently introduced of the three imaging modalities and is receiving growing support among pediatric radiologists.
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