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The association between sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and adverse clinical events in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Acta Cardiologica 2023 August 30
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the common clinical adverse events associated with sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) use compared to placebo in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with or without type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: Twelve articles were chosen via a systematic search of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. We screened for randomised placebo-controlled trials. The main clinical adverse events included diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA), amputation, and volume depletion. We performed heterogeneity testing and assessment of publication bias.

RESULTS: In all, 65 600 patients were included in the analysis. Compared to placebo, SGLT2i may increase the risk of DKA and volume depletion in patients with CKD with or without type 2 diabetes. For DKA, compared with placebo, the combined effect of SGLT2i was OR 2.03 (95% CI: 1.28 to 3.23 I2 : 2.3%, P: 0.420). For volume depletion, compared with placebo, the combined effect of SGLT2i was OR 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13 to 1.37 I2 : 0.0%, P: 0.484). For the risk of amputation, despite low heterogeneity for amputation, the forest plot indicated no statistical significance, and thus it cannot be concluded that SGLT2i increases the risk of amputation. Compared with placebo, the combined effect of SGLT2i was OR 1.10 (95% CI: 0.94 to 1.29 I2 : 0.0%, P: 0.642).

CONCLUSION: The use of SGLT2i may increase the risk of DKA and volume depletion in patients with chronic renal insufficiency with or without type 2 diabetes.

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