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Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectral Discrimination in Human Tissue of Oesophageal Transformation to Adenocarcinoma.

This study presents ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared) spectral analysis of ex vivo oesophageal tissue including all classifications to oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). The article adds further validation to previous human tissue studies identifying the potential for ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in differentiating among all classes of oesophageal transformation to OAC. Tissue spectral analysis used principal component analysis quadratic discriminant analysis (PCA-QDA), successive projection algorithm quadratic discriminant analysis (SPA-QDA), and genetic algorithm quadratic discriminant analysis (GA-QDA) algorithms for variable selection and classification. The variables selected by SPA-QDA and GA-QDA discriminated tissue samples from Barrett's oesophagus (BO) to OAC with 100% accuracy on the basis of unique spectral "fingerprints" of their biochemical composition. Accuracy test results including sensitivity and specificity were determined. The best results were obtained with PCA-QDA, where tissues ranging from normal to OAC were correctly classified with 90.9% overall accuracy (71.4-100% sensitivity and 89.5-100% specificity), including the discrimination between normal and inflammatory tissue, which failed in SPA-QDA and GA-QDA. All the models revealed excellent results for distinguishing among BO, low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and OAC tissues (100% sensitivities and specificities). This study highlights the need for further work identifying potential biochemical markers using ATR-FTIR in tissue that could be utilised as an adjunct to histopathological diagnosis for early detection of neoplastic changes in susceptible epithelium.

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