JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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Update on the Diagnosis and Management of Early-onset Scoliosis.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review the most recent advancements in the approaches to EOS diagnosis and assessment, surgical indications and options, and basic science innovation in the space of early-onset scoliosis research.

RECENT FINDINGS: Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) covers a diverse, heterogeneous range of spinal and chest wall deformities that affect children under 10 years old. Recent efforts have sought to examine the validity and reliability of a recently developed classification system to better standardize the presentation of EOS. There has also been focused attention on developing safer, informative, and readily available imaging and clinical assessment tools, from reduced micro-dose radiographs, quantitative dynamic MRIs, and pulmonary function tests. Basic science innovation in EOS has centered on developing large animal models capable of replicating scoliotic deformity to better evaluate corrective technologies. And given the increased variety in approaches to managing EOS in recent years, there exist few clear guidelines around surgical indications across EOS etiologies. Despite this, over the past two decades, there has been a considerable shift in the spinal implant landscape toward growth-friendly instrumentation, particularly the utilization of MCGR implants. With the advent of new biological and basic science treatments and therapies extending survivorship for disease etiologies associated with EOS, the treatment for EOS has steadily evolved in recent years. With this has come a rising volume and variation in management options for EOS, as well as the need for multidisciplinary and creative approaches to treating patients with these complex and heterogeneous disorders.

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