Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

SALL4 phenotype in four generations of one family: An interplay of the upper limb, kidneys, and the pituitary.

INTRODUCTION: The SALL4 gene encodes a transcription factor that is essential for early embryonic cellular differentiation of the epiblast and primitive endoderm. It is required for the development of neural tissue, kidney, heart, and limbs. Pathogenic SALL4 variants cause Duane-radial ray syndrome (Okihiro syndrome), acro-renal-ocular syndrome and Holt-Oram syndrome. We report a family with vertical transmission of a SALL4 pathogenic variant leading to radial hypoplasia and kidney dystopia in several generations with additional growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in the proband.

CASE PRESENTATION: Our male proband was born at the 39th week of gestation. He was born small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight 2550 g, -2.2 SDS; length 47 cm, -2.0 SDS). He had bilateral asymmetrical radial ray malformation (consisting of radial hypoplasia, ulnar flexure, and bilateral aplasia of the thumb) and pelvic kidney dystopia, but no cardiac malformations, clubfoot, ocular coloboma or Duane anomaly. He was examined for progressive short stature at the age of 3.9 years, where his IGF-1 was 68 ug/l (-1.0 SD), and growth hormone (GH) after stimulation 6.2 ug/l. Other pituitary hormones were normal. A brain CT revealed normal morphology of the cerebral midline and the pituitary. He had a dental anomaly - a central mandibular ectopic canine. MRI could not be done due to the presence of metal after multiple corrective plastic surgeries of his hands. His mother's and father's heights are 152.3 cm (-2.4 SD) and 177.8 cm (-0.4 SD) respectively. His father has a milder malformation of the forearm. The affected paternal grandfather (height 164 cm; -2.3 SD) has a radial ray defect with missing opposition of the thumb. The family reports a similar phenotype of radial dysplasia in the paternal grandfather's mother. The proband started GH therapy at age 6.5 years when his height was 109 cm (-2.8 SDS) and he experienced catch-up growth as expected in GHD. Puberty started spontaneously at the age of 12.5 years. At age 13 his height was 158.7 cm (-0.2 SDS). Whole exome sequencing revealed a nonsense variant in the SALL4 gene c.1717C>T (p.Arg573Ter) in the proband, his father, and paternal grandfather.

CONCLUSION: This is the first observation of a patient with a congenital upper limb defect due to a pathogenic SALL4 variant who has isolated GHD with no apparent cerebral or facial midline anomaly, and has been successfully treated with growth hormone.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app