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Outer membrane vesicle-based intranasal vaccines.

Delivery of vaccines via the mucosal route is regarded as the most effective mode of immunization to counteract infectious diseases that enter via mucosal tissues, including oral, nasal, pulmonary, intestinal, and urogenital surfaces. Mucosal vaccines not only induce local immune effector elements, such as secretory Immunoglobulin A (IgA) reaching the luminal site of the mucosa, but also systemic immunity. Moreover, mucosal vaccines may trigger immunity in distant mucosal tissues because of the homing of primed antigen-specific immune cells toward local and distant mucosal tissue via the common mucosal immune system. While most licensed intramuscular vaccines induce only systemic immunity, next-generation mucosal vaccines may outperform parenteral vaccination strategies by also eliciting protective mucosal immune responses that block infection and/or transmission. Especially the nasal route of vaccination, targeting the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, is attractive for local and distant mucosal immunization. In numerous studies, bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have proved attractive as vaccine platform for homologous bacterial strains, but also as antigen delivery platform for heterologous antigens of nonbacterial diseases, including viruses, parasites, and cancer. Their application has also been extended to mucosal delivery. Here, we will summarize the characteristics and clinical potential of (engineered) OMVs as vaccine platform for mucosal, especially intranasal delivery.

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