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Life's Essential 8 and Mortality in US Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease.

INTRODUCTION: The current prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is substantial, and CKD individuals face a heightened risk of mortality, encompassing both all-cause and cause-specific outcomes. The current study aims to investigate the potential impact of adhering to Life Essential 8 (LE8) on reducing mortality among CKD individuals.

METHODS: Using the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) data from 2005 to 2018, we analyzed 22,420 United States adults (≥20 years old). CKD is defined by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (≥30 mg/g or 3 mg/mmol) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (<60 ml/min/1.73m2). The components of LE8, including diet, physical activity (PA), nicotine exposure, sleep, Body Mass Index, blood lipids, blood glucose, and blood pressure (BP) were measured and given a score of 0-100. The total LE8 score was the unweighted average of all components and was divided into low cardiovascular health (CVH) (0-49), moderate CVH (50-79), and high CVH (80-100). Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to explore the associations of LE8 with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality, which were followed prospectively by the National Center for Health Statistics until December 31, 2019.

RESULTS: In the overall population, individuals with moderate CVH had a 47% lower risk of CKD, while high CVH was linked to a 55% lower risk compared to low CVH. During a median follow-up of 7.58 years, CKD individuals had a 93% higher all-cause mortality rate and a 149% higher CVD mortality rate compared to those without CKD. Among the CKD individuals, every 10-point increase in LE8 score was associated with reduced risks of 17% for all-cause mortality (especially PA, nicotine exposure, blood glucose, and BP), 18% for CVD mortality (especially PA), and 12% for cancer mortality (especially PA and sleep health). In additional and sensitivity analysis, the results remained significant after further consideration of potential confounding of renal function. Additionally, LE8 demonstrated superior risk stratification for CVD mortality among CKD patients compared with LS7. Interaction was observed between LE8 and age, education level, marital status, and drinking status.

CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrates that adherence to higher LE8 levels within CKD individuals is associated with a reduced risk of both all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

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