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Advantages and challenges of Newcastle disease virus as a vector for respiratory mucosal vaccines.

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian pathogen with an unsegmented negative-strand RNA genome. Properties such as the ease of genome modification, respiratory tract tropism, and self-limiting replication in mammals make NDV an attractive vector for vaccine development. Experimental NDV-based vaccines against multiple human and animal pathogens elicited both systemic and mucosal immune responses and were protective in preclinical animal studies, but their real-life efficacy remains to be demonstrated. Only recently, the first results of clinical trials of NDV-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 became available, highlighting the challenges that need to be overcome to fully realize the potential of NDV as a platform for the rapid development of economically affordable and effective mucosal vaccines.

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