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Nutritional Status of Underprivileged Indian Children and Youth with Type-1 Diabetes - A Multicentre Study.

BACKGROUND: India has the highest number of prevalent type-1 diabetes (T1D) cases in the under-20-year age population. Data on the anthropometry of underprivileged Indian children with T1D are scarce. In economically disadvantaged countries like India, poor growth in patients with T1D is a major concern due to limited accessibility and affordability. Besides, due to the double burden of malnutrition, the prevalence of obesity is increasing mirroring the global trends, which may lead to the development of insulin resistance.

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in Indian children and youth with T1D and to identify the determinants of short stature.

METHODS: A registry-based cross-sectional analysis of data collected from various centres across India enrolled in the Changing Diabetes in Children (CDiC) programme.

RESULTS: We observed that 6.4% were undernourished (3.4% severe undernutrition) and 17.7% (overweight 13.2%) had combined overweight/obesity. 21.2% of participants had short stature (adjusted for mid-parental height) with 7.4% cases of familial short stature. Longer duration of illness and insulin requirement were significant positive predictors of short stature while glycaemic control, insulin regimen and mid-parental height did not have a significant relationship with short stature. Participants on basal-bolus regimen had significantly higher insulin requirements and better glycaemic control than the ones on mixed-split regimen.

CONCLUSION: We report that around one-fifth of children and youth with T1D were overweight/obese and around a fourth were stunted, especially those with longer duration of diabetes and higher insulin requirements. Close monitoring of anthropometric parameters is necessary for all children with T1D to optimize growth and nutrition.

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