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Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in a Resource Limited Setting.

BACKGROUND: Regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) remains the mainstay method for diabetes monitoring. The major limitation of SMBG is poor compliance and it only provides a snapshot of glucose values at that point of time. Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) are non-invasive devices which measure subcutaneous interstitial glucose for every five minutes and provide glucose variability throughout the day.

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of intermittent continuous blood glucose monitoring in comparison with SMBG on the percentage reduction in HbA1c level in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM).

METHODS: Children diagnosed with type 1 DM of age group 3-18 years were enlisted into the study. Participants were randomised to the study arm (CGMs+SMBG) or the control arm (SMBG alone). Subjects in the study group were given CGM along with regular SMBG for 14 days. The control group was asked to perform SMBG. HbA1c levels were measured in both groups after three months of intervention.

RESULTS: There were 62 children in each group. After three months, in the intervention group HbA1c level dropped from 11.23% ± 1.53% (Mean ± SD) to 10.14% ± 1.99%, in control group HbA1c level dropped from 11.62% ± 1.62% to 11.32% ± 1.57%. The fall in HbA1c level in intervention group is significant (p value -0.01).

CONCLUSION: In a resource-limited setting, intermittent use of CGMs atleast once every two to three months will help in understanding the factors influencing glucose variation throughout the day and, with appropriate therapeutic modifications, will aid in achieving optimal glycaemic control.

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