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Clinical course and prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and haemophilia.

INTRODUCTION: Although patients with haemophilia are known to develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at a lower age than patients without, there are few reports on the clinical course and prognosis of HCC.

AIM: We aimed to investigate the clinical course and prognosis of patients with HCC and haemophilia.

METHODS: Twenty-two patients with haemophilia, who were initially diagnosed with HCC between 2003 and 2021, were included. Their clinical courses and prognoses were retrospectively analysed. The results were compared with those of the 24th Nationwide Follow-up Survey of Primary Liver Cancer.

RESULTS: All 22 patients were male; of these, 20 patients had haemophilia A, and 2 had haemophilia B. The mean age of diagnosis was 63 years (range 45-78 years) which is lower than the mean of 72 years reported in the Nationwide Survey. The mean diameter of the largest tumour was 30 mm (range 11-70 mm), and 18 tumours (82%) were solitary at the initial diagnosis. Standard treatments for HCC were performed in all patients. Sixty-one transarterial chemoembolisation, 28 RFA, 10 hepatectomies, and 2 radiation treatments were performed, and molecular-targeted agents were administered to 5 patients during their clinical courses. No deaths were associated with complications of HCC treatments. The median survival time after initial treatment was 6.4 years (range 0.9-18.7 years) which did not differ much from the median survival time of 5.8 years in the Nationwide Survey.

CONCLUSION: Standard treatment for HCC could improve the prognosis of patients with HCC and haemophilia.

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