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Association Between Femoral Anteversion and Distal Femoral Morphology in Patients With Patellar Dislocation and Trochlear Dysplasia.

BACKGROUND: Increased femoral anteversion (FA) is reportedly associated with patellar dislocation (PD) and trochlear dysplasia (TD), and the increase in FA may occur at different segments of the femur. In addition, TD is associated with dysplasia of the posterior femoral condyle. Among patients with PD, whether FA is greater with or without TD remains unclear.

PURPOSE: To explore differences in FA and torsion distribution at different femoral sections among patients with PD and TD, patients with PD and no TD, and sex- and age-matched controls and to investigate the association between FA and distal femoral morphology.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

METHODS: This study involved 132 knees: 44 knees with PD and TD, 44 knees with PD but no TD, and 44 control knees. FA, proximal torsion (PT), middle torsion (MT), distal torsion (DT), and distal femoral morphology were measured. Differences were investigated by 1-way analysis of variance. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to explore the association between FA and each parameter.

RESULTS: FA was significantly larger in the PD with TD group (25.4° ± 4.7°) than in the other groups (controls: 18.9° ± 5.6°; PD without TD: 19.9° ± 4.8°) ( P < .01). DT was significantly larger in the PD with TD group (15.8° ± 2.9°) than in the other groups (controls: 9.0° ± 4.3°; PD without TD: 8.8° ± 3.9°) ( P < .01). In all 3 groups, FA was strongly positively correlated with DT (control, PD without TD, and PD with TD, respectively: r = 0.76, 0.80, and 0.88; P < .01), strongly positively correlated with the posteromedial condylar length ( r = 0.48, 0.48, and 0.70; P < .01) and negatively correlated with the posterolateral condylar length ( r = -0.30, -0.35, and -0.78, respectively; P < .05).

CONCLUSION: The increased FA in knees with TD was due mainly to DT rather than PT or MT, which may provide a reference for choosing the optimal position for femoral derotation osteotomy.

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