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Autoimmune Encephalitis with Antibodies: Anti-NMDAR, Anti-AMPAR, Anti-GQ1b, Anti-DPPX, Anti-CASPR2, Anti-LGI1, Anti-RI, Anti-Yo, Anti-Hu, Anti-CV2 and Anti-GABAAR, in the Course of Psychoses, Neoplastic Diseases, and Paraneoplastic Syndromes.

Diagnostics 2023 August 4
Encephalitis is a condition with a variety of etiologies, clinical presentations, and degrees of severity. The causes of these disorders include both neuroinfections and autoimmune diseases in which host antibodies are pathologically directed against self-antigens. In autoimmune encephalitis, autoantibodies are expressed in the central nervous system. The incidence of this disease is approximately 4% of all reported cases of encephalitis. Autoimmune encephalitis can be induced by antibodies against neuronal surface antigens such as N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated glutamate receptors (NMDAR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPAR) or gangliosides GQ1b, DPPX, CASPR2, LGI1, as well as by antibodies against neuronal intracellular antigens. The paper presents a number of both mental and neurological symptoms of autoimmune encephalitis. Moreover, the coexistence of psychoses, neoplastic diseases, and the methods of diagnosing autoimmune encephalitis are discussed. Attention was also drawn to the fact that early diagnosis, as well as early initiation of targeted treatment, increases the chance of a successful course of the therapeutic process. Strategy and Methodology: The articles on which the following paper was based were searched using search engines such as PubMed and Medline. Considering that anti-NMDAR antibodies were first described in 2007, the articles were from 2007 to 2023. The selection of papers was made by entering the phrases "autoimmune encephalitis and psychosis/paraneplastic syndromes or cancer". The total number of articles that could be searched was 747, of which 100 items were selected, the most recent reports illustrating the presented topic. Thirty-four of them were rejected in connection with case reports or papers that could not be accessed.

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