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Is prophylactic anti-convulsive treatment necessary in subdural hematomas?

BACKGROUND: Subdural hematoma (SDH) is usually an emergent clinical condition in neurosurgery. The relationship between the SDH and epilepsy is not well established. Therefore, the use of anti-convulsive treatment in patients with SDH is controversial. The aim of this study is to analyze the presence of seizures in patients who underwent surgery for SDH.

METHODS: Patients who were operated on for SDH in our department between 2016 and 2021 were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic features, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, type of SDH, location, etiology, type of surgical intervention, presence of seizures, and re-operation were evaluated.

RESULTS: There were 175 patients with SDH. There is a statistically significant difference between the frequency of seizures and the type of SDH. More seizures were observed in acute SDH than in the others. There is also a statistically significant difference between the GCS score and the frequency of seizures. Patients with a GCS score <12 at admission had more frequent seizures than patients with a score of 12 or higher. No statistically significant difference was found between factors such as etiology, re-operation, hematoma location, and the development of seizures.

CONCLUSION: Anti-convulsive treatment may be recommended in patients with acute SDH and a low GCS score at admission. Further studies with larger series should be performed to determine the most appropriate anti-convulsive agent for patients with SDH.

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