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Secondary Mediastinal Bleeding Caused by Parathyroid Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report.

INTRODUCTION: The clinical picture of parathyroid tumors is mainly related to hypercalcemia such as kidney stones and bone and muscle pain. However, spontaneous cervical hemorrhage due to parathyroidoma bleeding is rare with clinical manifestations of the painful swelling and bruising of the neck accompanied by dysphagia and dyspnea.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 71-year-old female patient who presented with acute cervical swelling and extensive bleeding spreading from the neck to the abdomen and 2 flanks. Investigation of patients revealed increased parathyroid hormone levels and hypercalcemia. The neck ultrasound showed the thyroid nodules in 2 lobes, and goiter plongeant on the right. Computed tomography scan images showed a hematoma spreading from the right side of the neck to the mediastinum.

RESULT: The patient required emergency surgery due to dyspnea and hemodynamic instability. The preoperative diagnosis was cervical bleeding with the likely cause being thyroid nodule rupture. However, during the surgery, the bleeding source was determined to be the right parathyroid tumor located deeply below the superior mediastinum. The patient's histopathological result of the tumor is parathyroid adenocarcinoma.

CONCLUSION: From our experience, the hemorrhage from parathyroid tumor should be considered as a cause of acute neck bleeding when no history of trauma or surgery is identified. Post-surgery histopathological analyses of the tumor are very important to detect parathyroid adenocarcinoma.

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