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Prevalence and Factors Associated with Dyslipidemia Among People Living with HIV/AIDS on Follow-Up Care at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

BACKGROUND: Despite its importance as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia remains poorly characterized in the African population.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with dyslipidemia in people with HIV/AIDS in follow-up at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated the charts of 288 people living with HIV/AIDS who had received Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment for at least six months at Zewditu Memorial Hospital from July to September 2021. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from the patient's charts. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 25.

RESULTS: The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was 55.2% in people living with HIV/AIDS. The prevalence of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dl in men and <50 in women was 46.9%; total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl was 22.6%; triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl was 18.8%, and low-density lipoprotein ≥130 mg/dl was 4.9%. Sex [Female adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.595, 95% CI: 0.37-0.956], age greater than 40 years (AOR = 1.026, 95% CI: 1.005-1.048), body mass index >25 kg/m2 (AOR = 1.767, 95% CI: 1.099-2.84), viral load >50 (AOR = 0.477, 95% CI: 0.27-0.842), and CD4 <500 (AOR = 1.938, 95% CI: 1.18-3.183) were identified as determinants of dyslipidemia.

CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of dyslipidemia among study participants compared to several studies published in a similar population. Being male, older age, higher BMI, low CD4 count, and viral load of < 50 copies/mL were associated with dyslipidemia in people living with HIV/AIDS. Therefore, lipid profile measurements at baseline must be part of routine care to prevent the devastating effects of dyslipidemia.

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