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Serologic Biomarkers in Pemphigus Monitoring: C-reactive Protein, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor, and Prolactin Levels Versus Autoantibody Assays.

Evaluation and monitoring of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) typically involve autoantibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). We aimed to determine the levels of antipemphigus immunoglobulin (Ig) G autoantibodies using ELISA and IIF (as standard biomarkers), and compare it to prolactin, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (as nonstandard biomarkers) to determine which of these non-standard biomarkers is appropriate for PV monitoring. The experiment was performed before and during therapy. Anti-Dsg immunoglobulin G autoantibodies were measured using ELISA and IIF (as standard biomarkers) versus prolactin, MIF, and CRP (nonstandard), before 1 and 3 months after the treatment. Before beginning the treatment, the severity of the disease was determined using the pemphigus disease area Index (PDAI). We enrolled 60 newly diagnosed patients with PV (32 men and 28 women; mean age=43.8±14.2 years). Before treatment, the levels of anti-Dsg1, anti-Dsg3, and IIF were high and had a significant relationship with PDAI. PDAI also had a connection with the levels of CRP and prolactin. The anti-Dsg1, anti-Dsg3, IIF, and CRP titers decreased in patients treated with conventional (prednisolone plus azathioprine) and rituximab therapy during and after treatment. In conclusion, anti-Dsg1, anti-Dsg3, and IIF autoantibody titers remain standard biomarkers for assessing disease activity, severity, and PV monitoring. The trend of CRP was similar to that of anti-Dsg1, anti-Dsg3, and IIF. Thus, CRP may be used for PV monitoring.

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