Formulation and Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory, Anti-oxidative, and Anti-remodelling Effects of the Niosomal Myrtenol on the Lungs of Asthmatic Rats.
Asthma is a common chronic allergic disease that affects a significant percentage of the world's population. Niosomes are nanoparticles consisting of non-ionic surfactants that can be used for drug delivery. This research was designed to investigate the impacts of inhalation of simple and niosomal forms of myrtenol against adverse consequences of asthma in rats. Asthma induction was performed via injection of ovalbumin, followed by its inhalation. Niosomes were created by a heating protocol, and their physicochemical features were evaluated. Forty-nine male Wistar rats were allotted into 7 groups (n=7 each): Control (CTL), vacant niosome (VN), Asthma, Asthma+VN, Asthma+SM (simple myrtenol), Asthma+NM (niosomal myrtenol), and Asthma+B (budesonide). Lung remodeling, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), inflammatory and cytokines, and antioxidant factors in the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), as well as), were evaluated. The results showed that myrtenol-loaded niosomes had appropriate encapsulation efficiency, kinetic release, size, and zeta potential. The thickness of the epithelial cell layer in the lungs, as well as cell infiltration, fibrosis, IgE, reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor nuclear factor alpha (TNF-α) levels, decreased significantly. In contrast, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxide activity increased significantly in the serum and BALF of the treated groups. The niosomal form of myrtenol revealed a higher efficacy than simple myrtenol and was similar to budesonide in ameliorating asthma indices. Inhalation of simple and niosomal forms of myrtenol improved the detrimental changes in the asthmatic lung. The niosomal form induced more prominent anti-asthmatic effects comparable to those of budesonide.
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